Oil-base Paint.

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Oil-base Paint.

This technique was definitively developed towards the end of the 15th century in Flandres and in Italy. Under multiple alternatives, the process spread in XVIe century in all the Occident. The brothers Van Eyck and Antonello da Messina were among the first to show all the resources which one could draw from this matter. It gets a certain convenience of work with the possibility of working long enough without work not drying too quickly and gives to the colors brightness and transparency. As in the case of will tempera, the receipts are innumerable. It is sometimes about an emulsion made up of oil, of egg, varnish and of water. More simply, one also finds the use of essential oils (like the spirits of turpentine or lavender) or of pure oils (as the ricinus or poppy, linseed oil) like only médiums. In the case of the oil-base paint, one generally employs a support made up of a fabric (flax or hemp) tended by a frame out of wooden coated with a layer of adhesive. But one can also use very varied supports : stone, copper, the slate, etc.

In certain cases, one also passes a bottom coloured before painting. It is the case of the technique known as of will imprimitura, a liquid made up of yellow of Naples and oil. The process of the taping, employed since the 16me century, consists in plating fabrics painted on a wall, a ceiling or a removable support like a wood panel.

The last operation, after the colors, consists in applying a varnish the purpose of which is to protect the pictorial layer. In Venice, one employed much the glacis which consisted of a first varnished slightly pigmented, it is a varnish called "to paint". In a more general way, one distinguishes fatty varnishes from varnishes based on gasoline. The fatty varnishes are more resistant, but tend to darken and yellow with time.

Since the Second World war, the use of paintings of synthesis developed in order to fulfill in a more flexible way the requirements of the artists as regards time of drying of materials, handiness and stability of the colors. They are emulsions made up of resins of synthesis of the type vinyl or acrylic (plastics). They have a great covering capacity, which makes it possible to use them even on particularly difficult supports, like the concrete or cement. They dry in little time and thus avoid with the artist the major disadvantage of the oil-base paint. Moreover, the colors are remarkably stable and almost inalterable in time. One can finally control the density of the product, on which depends dyes it more or less subdue color, by a simple water addition.