Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851)
Born in London on April 23, 1775, William Turner, wire of a barber of modest condition, is allowed at the schools of Royal Academy in December 1789. During 4 years, it studies arts and the techniques of the watercolour near the painter Thomas Malton. Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg learns how to him to be filled with enthusiasm for the atmospheric phenomena and the climatic sudden changes of mood. To directly impregnate atmospheres, places and lights of nature, it starts to travel to England and to Wales then to Scotland. In 1794 it meets the painter Thomas Girtin who incites it to make copies and watercolours of works of John Robert Cozens and other landscape designers. It is during these experiments of "copyist" that Turner is initiated with the subtlety of the colors.
Turner discovers Europe, in particular France, Switzerland, Holland, Germany and Italy since 1819 and it impregnates pictorial methods of its European counterparts, landscapes and new lights which fascinate it. Very influenced by the work of the French painter Claude the Lorraine one, Turner undertakes in 1807 the vast task to index in its turn its own production in a collection of engravings which remained unfinished.
The use which this last of the atmospheric variations makes shows through in many works. The architectural forms are treated identical manners. Its first voyage in Italy, in 1819, mark another turning in the painting of Turner. On its return, its works are characterized by more brilliant colors and the diffusion of the light. Its use gives a radiance particular to the colors, softens the shades and the forms.
Little by little the very balanced compositions of its beginnings make place with detached an enough representation of the object. Turner is useful only of the color to melt the pictorial elements in an overall impression and to make the phenomena climatic by the light and the color.
Its late work is misunderstood by its contemporaries. Completely dissociated object its painting is very advances some for its time. Using to the extreme the abstraction which characterizes its last compositions, it arrives to a vibrating direction of the forces by representing the objects like indistinct masses inside a halation of hot colors.
Turner is before a whole admirer of the light. The light is everywhere, in all its compositions. It is a water man, fascinated by the vastness, the enigma or the violence of the sea. Calmer water enables him to play of the prospect while using for the reflections of nature on their surface.
Fire, element antagonistic of water, offers to him in its turn the occasion of exalter.
Turner is particularly famous for its dynamic treatment of the natural luminous effects in the landscapes and the navy. It left a prolific work (282 paintings and approximately 19 000 watercolours and drawings) which anticipates and influences the later artists, of the impressionists to the modern painters.